Paralympic games: History, development, heroes …

Paralympic games: History, development, heroes …

The history of Olympic Games is well-known much. Unfortunately, games — the Olympic Games for people with the physical defects limited by possibilities are much less known Paraolympic, or as it is accepted to write, Paralympic.

The founder of Paralympic movement, outstanding neurosurgeon Ludwig Guttman (1899 — 1980), was born in Germany. Long time worked in Breslau’s city hospital. In 1939 has emigrated to England. His medical talent was obvious and is appreciated soon: on the instructions of the government of Great Britain in 1944 it has opened and has headed the Center of a spinal trauma at hospital of the small town Stok-Mandevil in 74 km from London. Using the techniques, Guttman has helped much wounded in Second World War fights to soldiers to return to normal life after the hardest wounds and traumas. The important place in these techniques was allocated for sports.

In Stok-Mandevile in 1948 Ludwig Guttman has held competitions on firing from onions among athletes on carriages — in London Olympic Games at the same time opened. In the 1952nd again at the same time with the next Olympic Games it has organised the first international competitions to participation of 130 disabled athletes from England and Holland. And in the 1956th for the organisation of the following large competitions of people with limited possibilities Guttman has received an award of the International Olympic committee — Fernli’s Cup for a contribution to development of the Olympic movement.

Guttman’s persistence has crowned success. Right after the Olympic Games-1960 in Rome the first summer Paralympic games have taken place, and since 1976 the winter are regularly led also.

For outstanding merits in rescue of people from illnesses corporal and sincere, assistance in restoration of their feeling of civil full value, advantage, Guttman has received a knightly rank and the highest award — an award of the British Empire.

Certainly, all of them — athletes-paralimpiytsy — heroes because have not reconciled to a fate, prepared destiny. They have broken it and have won. And it is not so important, whether their victory is topped with an official award. But before it is necessary to remember predecessors of modern heroes of Paralympic games.

George Eyser (USA). Was born in 1871 in Germany, in the homeland of gymnastics — can be, therefore has chosen this sport, continuing to be engaged in it in the USA where his family has emigrated. Has achieved the first successes and — the tragedy. Has got under a train, has lost the left foot. On a wooden artificial limb continued to prepare for Olympic Games which should pass in its city of Saint Louis.

And when they have taken place, Eyser — the gymnast on a wooden artificial limb — has won gold medals in exercises on bars, in a vault and in a lazaniye on a rope. Besides, has won silver awards on seven shells and bronze on a crossbeam.

Oliver Halassi (Hungary) — the silver prize-winner of the Olympic Games-1928 in Amsterdam, the Olympic champion of 1932 in Los Angeles and the premilitary Olympic Games in Berlin of 1936. In the childhood has lost a foot below a knee, having been run over by a car. As the disabled person of to recognise refused flatly, training in swimming and water polo.

In 1931 Oliver became the champion of Europe in swimming on 1500 m, and in 1931, 1934 and 1938 as a part of modular Hungary has won a rank of the champion of Europe on water polo. The champion of the country in swimming it was 25 times (!) — on distances from 400 to 1500 m.

In Oliver Halassi’s our country almost do not know, data on it in sports books are absent. The reason that in 1946 it was lost by hand the soldier of the Soviet Army. On one of versions, the athlete tried to stop marauders about the house. In some days at his wife their third child was born.

Kara Takash (Hungary) (1910 — 1976). The Olympic champion in London-1948 and Helsinki-1952. Takash was a military man, but in 1938 its army career has broken a gap in the right hand of the rejected grenade.

Penalty was quickly retrained to shoot the left hand: the next year after the tragedy — in the 1939th — he became world champion as a part of modular Hungary. On the Olympic Games-1948 in London Takash has struck all, having won "gold" in the crown look — firing from 25 m from the skorostrelny gun. Before fight Argentinian Carlos Diaz Valente who was considered as the favourite in this look, not without irony has taken an interest at Takash, why it has arrived on the Olympic Games. Takash has briefly answered: «To study». During rewarding Carlos who has taken the second place on a podium, sincerely admitted to it: «You have well learnt».

Takash has repeated the success on the Olympic Games in Helsinki-1952, he was the double champion first in the history of Olympic Games. Spoke and at the following games, but to become the champion of three Olympic Games in a row it was not possible.

Ildiko Uylaki-Reyto (Hungary) (sort. in 1937). The participant of five Olympic Games, the double champion of the Olympic Games in Tokyo-1964, the owner of seven medals. The well-known fencer, one of the strongest for all history of sports fencing, was born the deaf. The physical defect was compensated by improbable reaction. In fencing has started to be engaged from 15 years. The trainers who have immediately estimated tremendous talent of the girl, communicated with it in writing, notes transferring instructions.

The rapier was Ildiko’s favourite weapon. In 1956 she became world champion among juniors, in a year has won the adult championship of Hungary, in the 1963rd — the world champion. On the first Olympic Games in Rome-1960 it has won a silver medal in command superiority, and in Tokyo-1964 has risen by career top: two "gold", in personal and command offset. On the following two Olympic Games has won four more medals — two silver and two bronze. In 1999 Ildiko became world champion among veterans.

Lise Hartel (Denmark) (1921 — 2009). The silver prize-winner of the Olympic Games-1952 to Helsinki and the Olympic Games-1956 in Melbourne (Stockholm) 1. Hartel since the childhood loved horses and was fond of a dressage. However after the birth of the daughter has fallen ill with poliomyelitis and has been partially paralysed. But favourite sports has not given up and perfectly exploited though to get into a saddle and leave it unaided could not.

Till 1952 to participation in Olympic Games on equestrian sport allowed only men, generally it there were military. But rules have changed, and women have acquired the right to act on horse-racing tournaments of any level on a level with men. On the Olympic Games-1952 in Helsinki among participants of competitions in a dressage there were four women. Lise has won a silver medal and became the first the female prize-winner of the Olympic competitions in equestrian sport. On Games of 1956 she has repeated the success.

Lise Hartel has lived a bright, rich life. Has grown up two children, was engaged in trainer’s work and charity, has based special medical horse-racing schools in the different countries. The medical and rehabilitation direction of equestrian sport — an ippoterapiya — thanks to it popularly around the world.

Sir Murray Halberg (New Zealand) (sort. in 1933) In youth Halberg played rugby and during one of matches has got a heavy trauma. Despite long treatment his left hand remained paralysed. Murray was engaged in run and in three years became the champion of the country. On the Olympic Games-1960 he has won Rome on a distance of 5000 m, and on 10 000 m was the fifth. In 1961 Murray has established four world records, and in the 1962nd became the double champion of the Games Sodruzhestva2 in run on three miles. It has finished career on the Olympic Games-1964 in Tokyo where finished the seventh on a distance of 10 000 m. Having left sports, Halberg has actively done charity work. The fund "Halberg Trust" helps children athletes with limited possibilities.

In 1988 Halberg has received a knightly rank, and in the 2008th — the highest award of the country — an award of New Zealand. Awards of a name of Halberg are annually handed over to the most successful New Zealand athletes.

Terry Fox (Canada) (1958 — 1981) — the national hero of the country. He did not participate in Paralympic games, but has inspired on feats of many athletes-paralimpiytsev. Having lost a foot in 18 years after the operation connected with a cancer, in three years it has run on an artificial limb «a hope marathon» on the country, raising funds for cancer researches. In 143 days has overcome more than 5000 km.

CHRONICLE SUMMER PARALIMPIAD

I summer Games (Rome, 1960)

The Paralympic games first in the history were opened by the spouse of the former president of Italy Charles Gronki, and Pope John XXIII has accepted participants in Vatican. The athletes-kolyasochniki who have suffered a trauma of a spinal cord participated in Games only. Track and field athletics, basketball, fencing, table tennis, swimming, and also a darts and billiards have been presented firing from onions.

II summer Games (Tokyo, 1964)

Games managed to be carried out in Japan thanks to the established communications of Japanese specialists physicians with Ludwig Guttman’s Stok-Mandevilsky centre. In track and field athletics there were races on carriages: individual on 60 m and go-ahead.

III summer Games (Tel Aviv, 1968)

Games should take place in Mexico City right after the Olympic Games-1968. But Mexicans in two years before have refused Paralimpiada, having referred to technical difficulties. Has helped out Israel which has organised competitions at high level. Italian Roberto Marson who has won nine gold medals — on three in track and field athletics, swimming and fencing became the protagonist.

IV summer Games (Heidelberg, 1972)

This time Games have taken place in the same country, as the Olympic Games, but in other city — organizers have hastened to sell the Olympic village under private flats. Athletes with disability on sight for the first time participated, they competed in run on 100 m. For them has appeared and голбол — while as a demonstration look.

V summer Games (Toronto, 1976)

For the first time sortsmeny-amputant competed. Most of all types of the program — 207 — was in track and field athletics. There were also unusual competitions — a slalom on carriages and blow on a football on range and accuracy. 18-year-old Canadian Arney Bold who has lost a foot at three-year age became the hero. It has shown surprising equipment of jumps on one foot: has won high jumps and length, having established in high jumps an improbable world record — 186 see. Participated in four Paralimpiadakh and has won in total seven gold and one silver medal, and in 1980 has improved the achievement on 10 cm — 196 cm!

VI summer Games (Arnhem, 1980)

Games should take place in Moscow, but the management of the USSR has not wanted to enter contacts on this matter, and them have transferred to Holland. In the program there was a volleyball sitting — volleyball players of the Netherlands became the first champions. Command offset was won by Americans — 195 medals (75 gold). Official data of the International Paralympic committee are hereinafter provided.

VII summer Games (Stok-Mandevil and New York, 1984)

Because of problems of interaction of Organizing committees of the Olympic and Paralympic Games of competition have taken place in parallel in America and Europe: 1780 athletes from 41 countries participated in competitions in New York and 2300 of 45 the countries — in Stok-Mandevile. 900 medals have been in total played. If in New York athletes of all categories, in Stok-Mandevile, by tradition acted, athletes-kolyasochniki acted only. Command offset was again won by Americans — 396 medals (136 gold).

VIII summer games (Seoul, 1988)

This time Paralympic games have again taken place on the same sports grounds and in the same city, as Olympic. The program included 16 sports. As the demonstration look has been presented tennis on carriages. The American swimmer Trisha Zorn who has won 12 gold medals — ten in individual heats and two relay races became hero Igr. The Soviet paralimpiyets acted only in track and field athletics and swimming, but could win in these types of 56 medals, including 21 gold, and to take the 12th command place.

Vadim Kalmykov has won in Seoul four "gold" — in high jumps, length, a threefold jump and pentathlon.

IX summer games (Barcelona, 1992)

Tennis on carriages became an official look. The CIS team has won 45 medals, from them 16 gold, and has taken the eighth all-command place. And the paralimpiyets of the USA who have won 175 medals, including 75 gold have won again.

X summer Games (Atlanta, 1996)

These Games became the first in the history, got commercial support of sponsors. 508 sets of awards in 20 types of the program were played. As indicative sports sailing and rugby on carriages have been presented.

Albert Bakarev became the first Russian athlete-kolyasochnikom who has won a Paralympic gold medal in swimming at competitions in Atlanta. He did swimming since the childhood, a heavy trauma has got in 20 years — on vacation has unsuccessfully jumped in water. Having returned to sports, in five years has shown good results, in Barcelona-1992 became the bronze prize-winner. In 1995 has won the World Cup. In Sydney-2000 has won two medals — silver and bronze.

XI summer Games (Sydney, 2000)

After these Games the decision temporarily to debar athletes with intelligence violation has been made. The reason consisted in difficulties of medical control. As an occasion game as a part of Spanish national team on basketball of several healthy athletes has served. Spaniards have won Russia the ending, but deception has been opened, however, "gold" has not passed to our basketball players, they and remained silver prize-winners.

And the Australian swimmer Siobkhan Peyton — the sportswoman with intelligence violation became heroine Igr. She has won six gold medals and has established nine world records. The Paralympic committee of Australia called her the sportswoman of year and has let out a stamp with its image. She has received the state award — an award of Australia. Siobkhan studied at usual school and very much worried because it constantly teased, calling "brake". She has adequately answered with the victories to offenders.

XII summer Games (Athens, 2004)

Such abundance of records was not on one of last Games. Only in competitions on swimming records of the world have been beaten 96 times. In track and field athletics 144 times were beaten world records and 212 — Paralympic.

In Athens the well-known veterans of Paralympic sports, including American Trisha Zorn, the visually impaired person which in 40 years has won the 55th medal in swimming have successfully acted. The participant of six Games, it has won on them almost all competitions on swimming and at the same time held nine Paralympic world records. Trisha acted and in competitions of healthy athletes, was the candidate for the national team of the USA for Olympic Games of 1980.

Japanese swimmer Mayumi Narita became heroine Igr. Sportsmenka kolyasochnitsa has won seven gold and one bronze medal and has established six world records.

XIII summer Games (Beijing, 2008)

Owners have created all conditions for participants. With special devices for disabled people have been equipped not only sports objects and the Olympic village, but also streets of Beijing, and also historical objects. On the first place, as expected, there was China — 211 medals (89 gold). Russians have taken the eighth place — 63 (18). Good result if to consider that our paralimpiyets acted less than in half of types of the program.

More than all medals — 9 (4 gold, 4 silver and 1 bronze) — the Brazilian swimmer Daniel Diaz has won.

Other hero — Oscar Pistorius (Republic of South Africa), the runner on artificial limbs — in Beijing became the triple Paralympic champion. In 11 months it has lost feet because of congenital defect. The athlete uses for run specially developed artificial limbs from углепластика and now fights for the right to participate as equals against all in the London Olympic Games-2012. At least, in vessels it this, apparently, has defended the right.

TYPES OF PARALYMPIC SPORTS

The summer

Basketball on carriages. The very first game look which has been presented on summer Games. In teams on five players; rules except that players move on carriages, are close to the usual. In Beijing-2008 basketball players of Australia became winners.

Billiards. Classical billiards — a snuker in the version for kolyasochnik has been presented on Games in 1960 by one man’s look. And silver prize-winners Englishmen became gold. Rules essentially do not differ from the usual.

Fight. Paralympic fight is closer to the manumission, participants are distributed on weight categories. In this look Americans were strongest: in 1980 they have won eight gold medals, and in the 1984th — seven. Probably, for this reason fight have replaced with a judo.

Bochche. Option of the Greek ball game. Rules are simple: the leather ball should be thrown as it is possible closer to a control white ball. Athletes participate in competitions with heavy forms of disability, the man and the woman together; there are individual, pair and command options.

Cycling. Rules are not adapted specially for athletes with disability, but the additional protective equipment is entered. Kolyasochniki athletes with sight violations — on bicycles tandems in pairs with able to see assistants compete on carriages bicycles with a manual drive. Men and women participate. The modern program includes highway races, and also track types: command, individual, races of prosecution, etc.

Volleyball. There are two versions — standing and sitting. In Beijing Russia in this look acted for the first time and has won bronze medals.

Golbol. Ball game for blind athletes in which it is necessary to go in gate of the opponent into a big ball with a jingle inside.

Rowing academic. Competitions are carried out by four types: man’s and female loner boats (the athletes working only hands) participate, the mixed two (hands and the case) and mixed the four (feet).

Darts. This look in the version for kolyasochnik has been presented on Paralympic games from 1960 to 1980, but is not excluded that it will return to the program.

Judo. In Paralympic option blind fighters (and men and women) grasp each other to a signal about the fight beginning. In Beijing the gold medal, the first for Russia, was won by Oleg Kretsul.

Track and field athletics. Run, jumps, throwings, all-round, and also specific types — races on carriages. In Beijing 160 types of the program have been presented. The first place at China — 77 medals (31 gold).

Equestrian sport. Competitions are carried out according to the obligatory program, any and command. 70 athletes participated in Beijing, including two representatives of Russia. Out of competition there was a team of Great Britain — 10 medals (5 gold).

Laun-boul (game in spheres). Game reminds at the same time golf and bowling, is invented in England in the XII century, entered into Paralympic games from 1968 to 1988. Athletes of Great Britain steadily were strongest.

Table tennis. Kolyasochnik (the ball crossing after a rebound lateral face of a table, it is not set off) and amputant participate, there are single and command competitions. In Beijing out of competition there were owners — 22 medals (13 gold).

Sailing. Men and women compete together in three ships classes. In Beijing on one gold medal at paralimpiyets of the USA, Canada and Germany.

Swimming. Rules are close to usual, but there are changes. So, to blind swimmers report about a contact of a wall of the pool. There are three options of start: standing, sitting and from water.

Rugby on carriages. Though men and women participate also, game differs rigidity and a beskompromissnost. The volleyball ball which it is possible to bear and transfer hands is used. Rugby on carriages unites elements of basketball, football and ice hockey, and play it on a basketball platform. The special carriages softening blows at collisions are used. In Beijing "gold" was won by a team of the USA.

Power types. The greatest distribution was received by powerlifting — a press of a bar lying. In Beijing Chinese became the best, having won 14 medals (9 gold).

Firing from onions. The first Paralympic look — the competitions of kolyasochnik organised by Ludwig Guttman in Stok-Mandevile have begun with it. The program includes command competitions, standing shooting and sitting in a carriage.

Firing bullet. Kolyasochniki shoot sitting in a carriage and lying. Athletes share on two categories: those who uses, and those who does not use an additional support for hands. There are man’s, female and mixed types.

Dancing sports. Competitions on dances on carriages share on three look — in a carriage the partner, in a carriage the partner and in carriages both dancers.

Tennis on carriages. Man’s and female, single and pair competitions are carried out. The main difference from usual tennis — two rebounds of a ball from a platform are allowed.

Fencing on carriages. The first look adapted for athletes with limited possibilities. Basic feature — carriages are fixed on a special platform, and instead of movements of feet operation of the case or only a hand is used.

Football 7х7. Competitions of athletes to cerebral paralysis and other neurologic violations, disability degree strictly makes a reservation rules: violations should interfere with normal game, and movement violations are allowed, but it is necessary to keep normal coordination in a standing position and at blow on a ball. Except the reduced sizes of a platform and smaller number of players there is no rule "off side" and the throw-in one hand is authorised. Two times for 30 minutes are played. The Russian football players — Paralimpiada’s champions in Sydney-2000, prize-winners 1996, 2004 and 2008.

Football 5х5. Game for blind and visually impaired athletes; it is close to голболу, but play standing. In team four players, and gate are protected by the able to see trainer-goalkeeper who directs actions. Game with a ball rattle proceeds 50 minutes. In one team there can be blind and visually impaired players; for all, except the goalkeeper, bandages are obligatory in the face of.

The winter

Biathlon. In 1988 men participated in competitions with violations of the bottom extremities only. In 1992 types for athletes with sight violation that became possible thanks to the special sound electric equipment created in Sweden have been added. Diameter of a target for athletes with sight violation — 30 mm, for athletes with violations of the musculoskeletal device — 25 mm. For each miss penal minute is appointed.

Rifles of athletes are on a shooting range, and they should not be carried on themselves. Firing only lying. With violation of sight it is necessary to athletes the conductor which helps them to take a position and to charge a rifle.

Skiing. Athletes with amputation (used special adaptations for sticks) and with disability on sight (passed a distance with the conductor) at first participated. Since 1984 in skiing athletes-kolyasochniki competed also. They moved on sedentary skis sled — the seat is fixed at height about 30 cm on two usual skis — and held short sticks.

Mountain skiing. The three-ski slalom is invented: athletes climb down a mountain on one ski, using two additional skis fixed on the ends of sticks. Competitions on a monoski are intended for kolyasochnik and remind snowboarding. In Turin-2006 there were 24 types of the program, on 12 for men and women.

Curling on carriages. Unlike traditional curling there are no "podmetalshchik". Teams mixed, among five players should be at least on one representative of each floor. Athletes compete on the habitual carriages. Stones move special sliding sticks with plastic tips which cling to the stone handle.

Sledzh-gonki on ice. Paralympic analogue of skating sports for athletes-kolyasochnikov. Instead of skates sledge with runners are used.

Sledzh-hokkey. It is invented by three disabled people from Sweden which went in for sports on carriages on the frozen lakes. As well as in traditional hockey, play six players (including the goalkeeper) from each team. Players move across the field on a sledge; the equipment includes two sticks one of which is used for pushing away from ice and maneuvering, and another for blow on a washer. Game consists of three periods duration for 15 minutes.

Evgeny Gik, Ekaterina Gupalo

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