Autism: the success depends on parents

Autism: the success depends on parents

Autism subject now especially is much discussed, to that the reason and films, and stories about autists. But still there are no clear ideas – that such autism? From where it undertakes and what with autists to do – to treat, learn, or it simply features of the personality? All these questions are answered by Olga Ivanovna Azova, the candidate of pedagogical sciences, the associate professor of logopedics of the Moscow psikhologo-social university, the director of the medical centre "Logomed Prognoz".

Autism: the success depends on parents

– If the child has not started talking in 1,5-2 years, it is necessary to parents to worry?

Surely! There is a concept онтогенез – development of speech in mankind. Each person in a year starts to tell ten words, in two years of the phrase, in three years – the developed phrases. And anybody cannot cancel it. It not only concerns speech – the child sits down in certain time, creeps, goes. If in a year the child does not say about ten words, and in two years it has no short phrase, this basis to address at least to two experts – to the neurologist and the logopedist.

Autism: the success depends on parents

Olga Azova

If the child has also features of behaviour: the child not contact, does not react to speech, does not understand the turned speech, will close on the interests, plays not toys, and improvised tools – magnets, spoons, tools; the child moves around, makes the movement interesting only to it, then the address to experts should be immediate! Because universal practice says that early diagnostics – the key to success of further correction.

If quickly enough it becomes clear that the child has an autistichesky type of development, in 1,5-2 years it is possible to offer parents a wide range of correctional methods. And the main thing – that the child has not left «under a shell». That it remained in society. When the child understands social standards, it is simpler to it to start talking.

– It will be both treatment, and correction by means of teachers, psychologists, correctly I understand? That is at first everything begins with features of behaviour but if not to correct, there are also more serious violations?

Question very extensive and very important. The first, still nobody knows, from where and why there is autism. Nobody knows, why at the child behaviour violations begin. Calls can be early enough, but find out, during what moment the pathological mechanism is started, yet it was not possible to anybody.

Both Russian, and foreign scientists speak about a biological, genetic origin of autism. In my opinion, the one who is engaged in correction, should not go in cycles in it. It not main thing.

The first, the reason of emergence of autism yet we do not know. The second, seems to me, it is necessary to offer and use a wide range of methods of correction. It is impossible to speak about something one.

One direction – medical, it difficult because on the one hand we say that this neurologic disease, with another – on domestic treatment is a mental disease. In my opinion, it not so. This certain violation of behaviour at the child which distinguishes it from other children.

The domestic psychiatry considers that after 18 years autism passes to schizophrenia. Though proofs in world practice are not present, and autists are not so similar to schizophrenics. It is such special type of development. It as to medical aspect. If it will turn out to work with the neurologist if it is to the child it is shown, it seems to me, it is meaningful to apply medical methods.

The following help is a psikhologo-pedagogical correction. Here the most actual innovative ways of correction is a psychology, a neuropsychology, logopedics, psychology of a wide range, an igroterapiya, psychotherapy etc. And non-drug therapy – that, as to movement. Autistichesky children in-co-ordinate. Here are necessary both LFK, and massage, and exercises on the balance, different acoustical therapies, sanatorium treatment. In monosyllables it is impossible to answer that from these directions it is more important. Everything is important. And to each child the individual program of correction should steal up.

That else it would be desirable to emphasise. Autistichesky children sensorno are very overloaded. If they have violations as acoustical perception, they close ears or there are children who something hold all the time in a mouth, lick fingers, collars. There are children who difficult perceive light – for them any light very bright. There are children tactile, is with superfluous taste. For example, it is expected that about a pie it is possible to tell that he sweet, and the child feels also other tastes – acid, salt and it feels more. Their hyper susceptibility is shown so. And it too can be corrected.

– Let’s say parents have understood that with the child something not so, but possibilities to address to experts are not present. With what to begin?

– The major question. Parents are responsible for the child to his majority. Parents ABSOLUTELY are responsible for the child. Parents occupy ABSOLUTELY leading role in education of the child.

I so consider: if mother "rod", strong-willed, rested, it surely achieves result with the child. Now a large quantity of grants on development of children, and the first year including. Speech does not go about any superadvanced occupations, but it is necessary to live together with the child – attentively and fixedly to watch all his manifestations. And to try to find time and possibilities for joint games. And if, for example, the logopedist has defined any problems, parents should not only drive the child on occupations to experts, but also of the house to carry out all tasks and recommendations.

And it is possible to address in a set of establishments: policlinics, social and psikhologo-pedagogical centres, correctional kindergartens and schools. These are all public institutions. There are also commercial structures.

Here the main thing – a choice of the expert. The parent should join in this history, talk to the expert, trace a situation, differently the success will be long. And if nevertheless parents are included, but the success is not present, means, it is necessary to change the expert.

Here it is necessary to mention one more important question – training. It concerns both logopedics, and psychiatry, both neurology, and psychology. In logopedics already overproduction of experts, but qualitative still is not enough.

– Parents should be in earnest about the child: in time to understand problems, to find experts. But after all not only it? Parents should be engaged with the child? Can give examples when parents have taken the child to experts and everything, and further any actions?  

– Parents are the rod mechanism. And if to pass to any examples, at first it is possible to tell so: how the parent behaves, the success of treatment and rehabilitation depends. It is very important, that that experts professionally advise, the parent has informed to the child and has transferred it to ordinary life.

So, there is in our practice a child which parents do from the point of view of the organisation of process of correction much. It and a wide range of occupations with the psychologist, the logopedist, and rehabilitation the child passes. But there is no transfer of the skills acquired on occupations to the household sphere. It turns out, the child comes back home and gets to a usual situation, where it still nonspeaking and difficult. What means? Mother instead of applying all knowledge which she has received, on the contrary, indulges and continues as to communicate with the child and to be in the sphere of his interests. He likes, for example, a cap to carry indoors and instead of following councils of teachers, how to get rid of a cap in house conditions, mother continues this cap to encourage.

Or, for example, there is such concept – room speech. The child on occupations tells already everything, owns completely offers, the connected speech, and home it does not bear it. As a result I ask: «And your father knows, what the child already enough decently speaks?» In reply I receive that the father does not know: «And unless he speaks?» And money as if is paid in vain. I.e. in a family this child does not communicate. I ask: «And the father asks it questions?» – «And what to ask it questions if the child all the same does not talk to it?»

In this family, except this child three more children, and, one daughter – future дефектолог, the 4th course. It could use the knowledge absolutely quietly. Why nobody communicates with it and does not enter any conversations? If the received knowledge and skills are not transferred to usual life, the child continues to lead the same life, nobody notices that he is able to speak, nobody accustoms it to what him have already taught. For example, the psychologist uses elements of manual skills, they mould something and design and instead of transferring it to usual life, pies, for example, to mould, dough to roll, it is considered that it still small, it is not necessary. I speak: «You at least to it have imparted elementary functions, put on it can?» – «Can. But we on occupations hurried up, I have dressed him itself». And to the child 6 years, by the way.

Surely everything need to be fixed in life. Happens so that if the child sits a back to mother, and she addresses to it, he can answer. And as soon as he sees that it is mother, ceases to speak. Has got used not to talk to it and it is not necessary to talk. If the person who did not know this child, has looked at it on occupations, he would not see any features in his speech. And to life it have not transferred, it turns out that in life it bezrechevy the child. Moreover, at all коммуницируется with the outside world, there are no friends, it is, let us assume, clear, but there is no even a communication with the close relatives.

– What general specifics at autists?

– They very hard take the received skills in life because are analytically very overloaded. It was primary, probably, so that when such child was born, he constantly analyzed each situation. The ordinary person, for example, should not analyze, well it has burnt once, it is not important – about the iron or it was opened fire, he knows that there are words «hotly! Do not touch!» And everything, it more it does not save, does not analyze.

And the brain of the autist analyzes each situation. Here I have burnt about a candle, about fire, this sound it is not pleasant to me. From an abundance of analizatorny peregruzhennost the child starts to retire into himself/herself, i.e. sensorno is closed, so to it it is simpler. Someone begins to tear the hair, стукаться the head, are extreme manifestations, it is heavy autism. And happens so: of glue has decided to be fond, buys all types of glue, then this interest passes, it "hangs" on other: it has in a mouth all small subjects. From it it passes to that collects all booklets in all establishments. It can be and at the ordinary child, all these ordinary children too love, but it not hyper congestion. At ordinary children all this has a certain framework.

Autichnye children somehow pathologically move in this direction, it is simpler to them to live with the interests, but interests can be and positive. The child saves, for example, together with mother smart музыкотеку – all plates, since ancient, refined. It as positive can be considered. Someone on a formation likes to put plates, someone beautifully stacks towels, at such children a wide range of these manifestations. But they easily outpass a certain norm.

– In more detail, please, – someone has burnt also everything, and autists start to analyze. In what plan? What it for the analysis?

– They analyze sensorno. Sensorika is an ear, an eye, a mouth, taste, tactile feelings. We do not analyze each step. We, have such researches, 99 % occur unconsciously. Since morning at all of us the same program, we do not think that we do: have risen under what corner as slippers have put in the morning, this foot we lower from a bed of the first or not this. And all is farther automatically up to while the person does not look, what bus goes, and that is too almost unconsciously. And autichny children analyze everything-everything. Also are so overloaded with it that outwardly it is shown patologichno. In what? They start to shout, close ears, to fight the head, to be closed and already to carry out those manipulations which to them are more clear and to which they have got used.

– And when parents, experts begin them from there, from a shell, to pull out, they resist?

– They resist. Certainly! It is necessary to catch, beckon them.

The first step is that they have got used to the person. Then to them it becomes simpler. They are not ready to communicate with each person. Second moment. They get used to any trajectory. These children ritual in the attachments, for them it is very difficult to leave the house, or it is important, that there was a certain course of actions or occupations. We at ourselves in the centre especially notice it, if, for example, for any reasons occupations by places have swapped, and here the child starts to worry. The expert with whom he was engaged has suddenly exchanged, God forbid, the child already worries, does not want to be engaged. To the ordinary child so usually does not occur.

Respectively, in the beginning there is a protest against the occupations, then absolutely overloaded child cannot move, he does not understand alternative of replacement of occupations. It needs to sit down at a table and to be engaged, and he does not understand that it is necessary to sit down and listen. It is called as field behaviour. If water has on the way got, means, water will pour, it is not simple to pour, and to splash, throw, throw. Magazines have got, means, they should be rumpled, torn. At ordinary children the alternative is very quickly built: in this establishment I should sit and listen to the teacher, here I should wait mother while she will pay and will buy medicine, here I to the concierge should tell "hello". Children very quickly understand, how where to behave.

Usually autichny children behave equally, as though they ill-bred. They are not able to behave by situation rules as it is accepted in society. Also make impression as though them do not bring up as if to them do not speak as it is necessary. And to speak to them it is senseless, because they do not perceive speech. If the child has an easy degree of an autizatsiya, he understands alternative if heavy degree, it can be learnt for years quicker.

Schooling occurs in alternative ways of communication: it you will make, and then we with you it will make it. Literally and write on a leaflet: «at first it, then it». Also paste two cards: «at first you will carry out this task, you will play then in the designer»; «you will eat at first porridge, and then to collect puzzles». That it likes to do, such system of encouragement. Actually it is very difficult system, it in two seconds you will not tell.

There are children emotionally warmer, understand quicker that they need to communicate with other people speech. Any occupations should be constructed so that the child has started to co-operate with the adult who conducts with it occupations. He should sit either on a chair, or on a carpet, carry out that the teacher asks. The quicker it will occur, the there will be a speech quicker. The child will understand that speech is necessary. And then parents should transfer everything to a household situation to what have learnt here.

– There were such stories when a certain rehabilitation course was carried out, parents continued to be engaged in it at home, and the child started to speak and communicate normally?

– Such children was much. Everything depends on autism degree. If autizatsiya degree small if emotionally the child rather open, is come into with it contact quickly and keys steal up to it rather easily. And this child slightly not such, but in, a principle, and society can accept the child slightly not the such. Let’s tell, he is on friendly terms not with all class, and at it one friend. For life anything special in it is not present. Its rituality not wide, and almost as at ordinary people. And after successful correction the quantity of these ritual examples will be less. The child learns to follow algorithm which was developed by society, to observe society rules. Even if to it it is heavy, he simply with it lives and works.

There were very successful examples of absolute hit. For example, the child has passed acoustical therapy by Tomatis’s method, and it has been strongly loaded by bone conductivity, listened bones much, and has suddenly started to hear an ear, the ear channel opens. It occurs approximately so. (Usually I give one example, it a little bit remote, but, nevertheless, indicative). Here, there are we in a dense cap, in the winter, do not hear behind a car sound, then we have suddenly appeared on a roadside. I.e. we heard both ears, and bones, but bones we in this case have quicker heard that behind the car, ears have been closed by a cap. In usual life of people does not listen bones. Hyper disturbing mothers listen, at which hyper responsibility for the children. Or, if there is any danger.

But there are hyper active children, they hear everything that is not necessary. The person has come into an office, such easy irritation, this child will surely turn, will distract. The teacher leads a lesson, all children watch a lesson outline, here some people have distracted on noise behind a window, on rustle distract, on the insignificant. All irritates, when the drill works, it loudly works, it is unpleasant to all these. And autichny children are irritated even by usual noise. When bone conductivity acts in film, the child starts to perceive an ear information, it has enough that speak speech. And it starts to process speech of other person and with speech to answer. Also becomes as the ordinary person. It is simpler for approaching then to the child and to tell: «Hi, what is your name?» He will receive the same answer: «Call me Petja!»

– That is the problem of all this correction – not completely to recover, and to live with this problem, to cope with it?

– In the bulk so. It is simple to live and know that the child the autist but to give it behaviour rules as it is accepted in this society. Under some children society should adapt, and too it it is necessary to all to inform, propagandise this problem that there is a part of people which cannot communicate as everything, they others. But a part of children, in the easiest form of autism, they will be dissolved among others, they will be imperceptible. Lungs will live as everything, averages will try to adapt very much, and for the aid to them there are experts and if heavy autists, here to society it is necessary to be more tolerant. It is necessary to understand that such children are also to them very hard. We should accept simply them such what they are.

– Children with heavy degree of autism can live among ordinary people?

– Heavy autists can live with the parents or trustees. They should live among us because they are people. Establishments should be not closed, and opened, most integrated. And the person should be put to such children, mother which can translate all for others is better at all. To it there is a name – a tyyuter, the person who is an intermediary between this child and other person. It can translate desires of the child, explain that he wants. And how he will understand? The child or to it will show, or will show a card, or the tyyuter will analyse behaviour of the child why he so behaves because he already knows it. There is the whole system – biotherapy, the analysis of behaviour which in principle is good for all people.

– But here it turns out, what not so much it is necessary to be engaged with the child, how many parents should be trained?

– Yes, it already life system. It is necessary to understand how to live with this child, to learn to hear and listen, analyze it his behaviour, then this behaviour it is possible to transfer to the normal course. Usually interfere also other violations, after all if only autism, this one. And if the child has a low degree of intellectual possibilities, it strongly aggravates a situation. As, in principle, in all similar situations. Cerebral spastic infantile paralysis can be simple, and can be with speech, intellectual violations. The brain defeat is more rough, heavier, the it is heavier to finish the child to a certain condition when it can separately live or exist most probably on ordinary people.

And the problem of society then already socially another should be, then it is necessary аппелировать to volunteers to give the chance to a family to have a rest a little bit from this heavy relationship. When parents are compelled to be all the time with the person who unusually perceives the world, there is an intra family burning out. Children who start to speak, can tell then: «To my mother it was very heavy, the father has left a family because it has not sustained, grandmothers have refused to sit with me because I conducted myself awfully». There were such recognitions …

If at this stage to a family there is a social help, personal time is given to mother and the father, and time behind products in shop is not simple to descend, and to descend on a concert or to make a hairdress, any the hour, two, three. it is very necessary! It is universal practice, it is around the world when since morning the volunteer calls and asks: «You want to descend and devote yourselves this time somewhere today? We are ready to sit with your child». It absolutely other approach, it should decide at the state level because parents, of course, cannot pay staff of nurses.