Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Ludwig Guttman – the father of Paralympic games

Competitions for people with the limited physical possibilities, received over time the name of Paralympic games, began to be carried out from giving of outstanding neurosurgeon Ludwig Guttman (1899-1980). «It is important not that it is lost, that remained» is important, – he argued.

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Ludwig Guttman

Guttman has been convinced that sports – a fine way not only physical, but also psychological, social rehabilitation of people with heavy traumas – such after the Second World War in Europe has appeared much.

Gutman has been compelled to emigrate in the thirties from nazi Germany to England where in 1944 has received an order of the government of Great Britain on centre creation for treatment of patients with violations of the musculoskeletal device in Stok-Mandevilsky hospital. Using the techniques, Guttman has helped many soldiers to return to normal life after the hardest wounds and traumas. Here, in Stok-Mandevile in 1948 Ludwig Guttman has held competitions on firing from onions among athletes on carriages — in London Olympic Games at this time opened.

In the 1952nd again at the same time with the next Olympic Games it has organised the first international competitions to participation already 130 disabled athletes not only from England, but also Holland. And in the 1956th for the organisation of the following large competitions of people with limited possibilities Guttman has received an award of the International Olympic committee — Fernli’s Cup for a contribution to development of the Olympic movement. Pope Pavel XXIII called Gutman «Coubertin for paralysed». In 1966 the knightly title has been appropriated to Dr. Gutman. Dr. Guttman on March 18, 1980 at the age of 80 years has died.

Today Stok-Mandelvil – obligatory point of Paralympic relay race. In 2014 all relay race takes place in Russia, the unique exception – this English city.

First Paralympic games

Guttman’s persistence has crowned success — right after the Olympic Games-1960 in Rome the first summer Paralympic games have taken place, they were opened by the spouse of the former president of Italy Charles Gronki. Pope John XXIII has accepted participants in Vatican. The athletes-kolyasochniki who have suffered a trauma of a spinal cord participated in Games only. They competed in firing from onions, track and field athletics, in the program of Games there was a basketball, fencing, table tennis, swimming, and also a darts and billiards.

Name and emblem

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Emblem of Paralympic games in Sochi

The term «Paraolimpiysky games» was applied in the beginning informally, by analogy to the term paraplegia «paralysis of the bottom extremities» as competitions were carried out among people with backbone diseases. When athletes began to participate in games and with other diseases the name has been rethought as «nearby, out of (from Greek????) Olympic Games». Games of 1960 officially were called as "The ninth International Stok-mandevilsky games» and only in 1984 they have been given the status of the first Paralympic games.Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Games of 1964 were the first games to which the term "Paralympics" was officially applied. Nevertheless, in a number of games up to Games of 1980, the term «Olympic Games for disabled people», in 1984 — «The international games of disabled people» was used. Finally the term "Paralympic" has been fixed on games of 1988.

Paralympic games: from where, when, whyWriting "Paralympic" is used in official documents of public authorities, being a tracing-paper from the official name (IOC) in English — paralympic games.

Emblem of Paralympic Games are three hemispheres of red, dark blue and green flowers located round the central point – three агитоса (from Latin agito – "to actuate, move"). Red, green and dark blue – often meet are widely presented in national flags of the countries of the world, symbolise Reason, the Body and Spirit. Such emblem has appeared for the first time on Paralympic winter games in Turin in 2006. The Paralympic motto – «Spirit in Motion» («Spirit in movement»). The motto laconically and brightly transfers the purpose of Paralympic movement – need to provide to athletes-paralimpiytsam of any level and an origin of possibility to inspire and admire the world thanks to achievements in sport.

Outstanding paralimpiyets

Of the athlete-paralimpiytsev it is possible to call each the hero irrespective of, whether their victory is topped with an official award: it is important that they have not reconciled to a fate, prepared destiny. They have broken it and have won. Let’s try remember and those people whom it is possible to call predecessors of modern heroes of Paralympic games.

George Eyser was a gymnast. It has become famous for improbable performance on the Summer Olympic Games of the 1904th when in one day George managed to win 6 medals (3 gold, 2 silver and 1 bronze). Eyser’s achievement looks even more fantastic if to remember that the athlete on an artificial limb acted – it has lost a foot earlier in railway incident.

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

George Eyser

Eyser in Germany when to George was 14 was born, his family has got over in States; in spite of the fact that after accident it has amputated the left foot, Eyser persistently trained, having aimed to act on the Olympic Games of the 1904th.

Summer Games of the 1904th in Saint Louis became the third Olympic Games in the history of modern sports and the first Games on which to owners of the three first places gold, silver and bronze medals (were handed over earlier to prize-winners handed over cups).

On parallel bars, a jump through a horse and a lazaniye on a 25-foot rope George has appeared the best, on a gymnastic horse and 14-etapny all-round has taken silver, on a horizontal bar has won bronze.

To the 2008th Eyser remained the unique participant of Olympic Games with an artificial foot. In the 2008th on the Olympic Games the South African swimmer Natali du Tua (Natalie du Toit) has acted; in a marathon heat on 10 kilometres it managed to take only the 16th place.

After brilliant performance on the Olympic Games Eyser has continued to go in for sports. Unfortunately, about George’s further life it is known very little — we at all do not know history of exact date of death of this outstanding and purposeful gymnast.

Lise Hartel (Denmark) (1921 — 2009). The silver prize-winner of the Olympic Games-1952 to Helsinki and the Olympic Games-1956 in Melbourne (Stockholm) 1.

Hartel since the childhood loved horses and was fond of a dressage. However after the birth of the daughter has fallen ill with poliomyelitis and has been partially paralysed. But favourite sports has not given up and perfectly exploited though to get into a saddle and leave it unaided could not. As spoke in the performance at conference of Association of riding for the disabled people, taken place in England in 1975:« Except hope to recover in me there lived unextinguishable desire again a network astride a horse. Once me have carried in a carriage on a stable to my favourite horse. All thought that I go mad, but I have insisted on the, and me have lifted on my obedient horse. I could pass on an arena only one circle at a slow pace. It was impossible to call it riding, me simply bore, but I again sat astride. It was improbably fine, I was overflowed by pleasure. I felt that one purpose is already reached, and I am waited already by the following. I was so tired, and all so was ill me that it was necessary to lay down, and has passed two weeks before I have decided to make new attempt.

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Lise Hartel

Till 1952 to participation in Olympic Games on equestrian sport allowed only men, generally it there were military. But rules have changed, and women have acquired the right to act on horse-racing tournaments of any level on a level with men. On the Olympic Games-1952 in Helsinki among participants of competitions in a dressage there were four women. Lise has won a silver medal and became the first the female prize-winner of the Olympic competitions in equestrian sport. On Games of 1956 she has repeated the success.

Lise Hartel has lived a bright, rich life. Has grown up two children, was engaged in trainer’s work and charity, has based special medical horse-racing schools in the different countries. The medical and rehabilitation direction of equestrian sport — an ippoterapiya — thanks to it popularly around the world.

Sir Murray Halberg (New Zealand) (sort. in 1933) In youth Halberg played rugby and during one of matches has got a heavy trauma. Despite

Paralympic games: from where, when, why

Sir Murray Harlberg

long treatment his left hand remained paralysed. Murray was engaged in run and in three years became the champion of the country. On the Olympic Games-1960 he has won Rome on a distance of 5000 m, and on 10 000 m was the fifth. In 1961 Murray has established four world records, and in the 1962nd became the double champion of the Games Sodruzhestva2 in run on three miles. It has finished career on the Olympic Games-1964 in Tokyo where finished the seventh on a distance of 10 000 m. Having left sports, Halberg has actively done charity work. The fund "Halberg Trust" helps children athletes with limited possibilities. In 1988 Halberg has received a knightly rank, and in the 2008th — the highest award of the country — an award of New Zealand. Awards of a name of Halberg are annually handed over to the most successful New Zealand athletes.

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